and its various kinds
I read in Question no. 12811 that there
are various kinds of major kufr that puts one beyond the pale of Islam.
I hope that you could explain that and give some examples of it.
Praise be to Allaah.
of kufr and its various kinds is a lengthy topic, but we may sum it up
in the following points:
1 – The
importance of knowing what kufr is and the forms it may take:
of the Qur’aan and Sunnah indicate that faith is not valid and is not
accepted unless two conditions are met – which are what are implied by
the testimony that there is no god except Allaah. These two conditions
are submission to Allaah alone (Tawheed), and denouncing and shunning
all kinds of kufr and shirk.
cannot denounce or shun anything unless he knows what it is. From this
we understand the importance of knowing what Tawheed is, so that we may
act accordingly and attain Tawheed, and knowing what kufr and shirk is
so that we may avoid them and steer clear of them.
Definition of kufr:
Arabic means covering and concealing something.
terminology it means “not believing in Allaah and His Messenger, whether
that is accompanied by denial or it is not accompanied by denial but
rather doubt, or turning away from faith out of jealousy or arrogance,
or because one is following whims and desires that prevent one from
following the message. So kufr is the attribute of everyone who rejects
something that Allaah has commanded us to believe in, after news of that
has reached him, whether he rejects it in his heart without uttering it,
or he speaks those words of rejection without believing it in his heart,
or he does both; or he does an action which is described in the texts as
putting one beyond the pale of faith.” See Majmoo’ al-Fataawa by Shaykh
al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, 12/335; al-Ihkaam fi Usool al-Ahkaam by Ibn Hazam,
said in his book al-Fasl: “Rejecting something for
which there is sound proof that there can be no faith without believing
in it is kufr, and uttering words for which there is proof that uttering
them is kufr is kufr. Doing any action for which there is proof that it
is kufr is also kufr.”
Kinds of major kufr which put one beyond the pale of Islam
scholars divided kufr into a number of categories, under which they
listed many forms and kinds of shirk. These are as follows:
kufr of denial and rejection. This kufr may sometimes take the form of
disbelief in the heart – which occurs rarely among the kuffaar, as Ibn
al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said – and sometimes it takes
the form of outward or apparent rejection, which means concealing the
truth and not submitting to it outwardly, whilst recognizing it and
knowing it inwardly, such as the Jews’ rejection of Muhammad [an error
occurred while processing this directive] (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him). Allaah says of them (interpretation of the meaning):
“then when there came to them that which they had
recognised, they disbelieved in it” [al-Baqarah 2:89]
said (interpretation of the meaning]:
“then when there came to
them that which they had recognised, they disbelieved in it”
because rejection only happens which a person knows the truth and
refuses it. Hence Allaah stated that the kuffaar’s disbelief in the
Messenger [an error occurred while processing this directive] (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him) was not disbelief in the true sense of
the word, because their disbelief was only outward and verbal, and
inwardly they recognized the truth.
(interpretation of the meaning):
“it is not you that they
deny, but it is the Verses (the Qur’aan) of Allaah that the Zaalimoon
(polytheists and wrongdoers) deny”
“And they belied them
(those Ayaat) wrongfully and arrogantly, though their ownselves were
this is the kufr of permitting that which is forbidden. Whoever regards
as permissible something which he knows that Islam has forbidden has
disbelieved in the Messenger [an error occurred while processing this
directive] (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and in that which
he brought. The same applies to one who forbids something which he knows
that Islam has permitted.
kufr of turning away in arrogance, such as the kufr of Iblees of whom
“… except Iblees (Satan),
he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to
2:34 – interpretation of the meaning]
says (interpretation of the meaning):
“They (hypocrites) say:
‘We have believed in Allaah and in the Messenger (Muhammad), and we
obey,’ then a party of them turn away thereafter, such are not
has stated that those who do not act in accordance with faith are not
believers, even if they utter the words of faith. The kufr of turning
away means that one ignores the truth and does not learn it or act in
accordance with it, whether it is the matter of words, actions or
beliefs. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“But those who disbelieve, turn away from that
whereof they are warned” [al-Ahqaaf 46:3]
turns away verbally from that which the Messenger has brought is like
one who says “I will not follow him.” The one who turns away by his
actions is like one who runs away from hearing the truth which he
brought, or puts his fingers in his ears so as not to hear, or who hears
it but turns away in his heart and refuses to believe, and who refuses
to act upon it. He has disbelieved in the sense of the kufr of turning
kufr of hypocrisy. This takes the form of not believing in the heart and
not acting, whilst submitting outwardly in order to show off to people.
This is like the kufr of Ibn Salool and the other munaafiqeen
(hypocrites) of whom Allaah said (interpretation of the meaning):
“And of mankind, there are
some (hypocrites) who say: ‘We believe in Allaah and the Last Day,’
while in fact they believe not.
They (think to) deceive
Allaah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and
perceive (it) not!
In their hearts is a
disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allaah has increased their disease.
A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies.
And when it is said to
them: ‘Make not mischief on the earth,’ they say: ‘We are only
Verily, they are the ones
who make mischief, but they perceive not.
And when it is said to
them (hypocrites): ‘Believe as the people (followers of Muhammad, Al-Ansaar
and Al-Muhajiroon) have believed,’ they say: ‘Shall we believe as the
fools have believed?’ Verily, they are the fools, but they know not.
And when they meet those
who believe, they say: ‘We believe,’ but when they are alone with their
Shayaateen (devils — polytheists, hypocrites), they say: ‘Truly, we are
with you; verily, we were but mocking.’
Allaah mocks at them and
gives them increase in their wrong-doing to wander blindly.
These are they who have
purchased error for guidance, so their commerce was profitless. And they
were not guided.
Their likeness is as the
likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it lighted all around
him, Allaah took away their light and left them in darkness. (So) they
could not see.
They are deaf, dumb, and
blind, so they return not (to the Right Path).
Or like a rainstorm from
the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder, and lightning. They thrust their
fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of
death. But Allaah ever encompasses the disbelievers (i.e. Allaah will
gather them all together).
The lightning almost
snatches away their sight, whenever it flashes for them, they walk
therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still. And if Allaah
willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight.
Certainly, Allaah has power over all things”
kufr of doubt, which means hesitating with regard to following the truth
and being uncertain as to whether it is true, because what is required
is certainty of faith (yaqeen) that what the Messenger brought is truth
with no hint of doubt in it. Whoever thinks that what he brought may not
be true has disbelieved, in the sense of kufr of doubt, as Allaah says
(interpretation of the meaning):
“And he went into his
garden while in a state (of pride and disbelief), unjust to himself. He
said: ‘I think not that this will ever perish.
And I think not the Hour
will ever come, and if indeed I am brought back to my Lord, (on the Day
of Resurrection), I surely, shall find better than this when I return to
His companion said to him
during the talk with him: ‘Do you disbelieve in Him Who created you out
of dust (i.e. your father Adam), then out of Nutfah (mixed semen drops
of male and female discharge), then fashioned you into a man?
But as for my part, (I
believe) that He is Allaah, my Lord, and none shall I associate as
partner with my Lord.’”
we may conclude that kufr – which is the opposite of eemaan or faith –
may take the form of feelings in the heart, such as hating Allaah or His
signs, or His Messenger [an error occurred while processing this
directive] (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him); this contradicts
love and faith which support the actions of the heart. Kufr may also
take the form of spoken words, such as insulting Allaah, or it may be an
outward action, such as prostrating to idols, or offering sacrifices to
someone other than Allaah. Just as faith takes the form of actions of
the heart, words on the tongue and outward physical actions, so too kufr
may take the form of actions of the heart, words on the tongue and
outward physical actions. We ask Allaah to keep us safe from kufr and
its branches, and to increase us in faith and make us guided and cause
us to guide others… Ameen. And Allaah knows best.
See A’laam al-Sunnah al-Manshoorah,
177; Nawaaqid al-Eemaan al-Qawliyyah wa’l-‘Amaliyyah by Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez
Aal ‘Abd al-Lateef, 36-46; Dawaabit al-Takfeer by Shaykh ‘Abd-Allaah al-Qarani,
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid