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    Fake Salafi Refutation

    Is Tawheed al-Haakimiyyah a Bid'ah?
    by Abu Huthayfah Yoosuf al-Kanadi

    Is Tawheed al-Haakimiyyah a Bid'ah?
    Prepared by Abu Huthayfah Yoosuf al-Kanadi

    It should be understood that the current terminology and classification of the different Sharee'ah sciences mostly were not used by either of the first three generations or "the Salaf us-Saalih " at all. It would be rare to find any of them using some of the terms that are so common today such as "Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah" or "Tawheed Ar-Rooboobiyyah" or "Tawheed Asmaa' wa Sifaat". Rather, we see them referring to Tawheed generally as one subject. However, later generations divided these classifications of Tawheed for the purposes of teaching and categorizing the different aspects of Allaah's Tawheed. Some of them, such as Ibn Al-Qayyim, only referred to two categories of Tawheed as he said, in his explanation of the Tawheed as it has come from the Qur'aan in Surat Al-Kaafiroon and Al-Ikhlaas:

    "…and they have both covered the two types of Tawheed, for which there is no salvation nor any success without them. And they are Tawheed Al-'Ilm wa'l-'Atiqaad…(i.e. the Tawheed of Knowledge and Beliefs)" - and he, may Allaah be merciful to him, goes on to explain this category, until he said, - "…and the second, is Tawheed Al-Qasd wa'l-Iraadah…(i.e. Tawheed of Intention and Purpose.)" - and likewise, he goes on to explain this category. [Badaai' Al-Fawaa'id, Vol. 1/145-146]

    And the point here is that Tawheed Al-'Ilm wa'l-'Atiqaad includes His Names and Attributes from the point of view of what we know and believe concerning Allah. And the Tawheed Al-Qasd wa'l-Iraadah includes them as well from the point of view of how we worship Allaah according to His Names and Attributes. So this was an alternate way of explaining and classifying Tawheed while giving emphasis to two aspects instead of three.

    And likewise, Ibn Abee Al-'Izz, may Allaah be merciful to him, said in his chapter of Tawheed:

    "Further, the Tawheed to which the Messengers invited and which was the main context of the revealed Books are of two kinds:
    i) Tawheed fi'l-Ithbaat wa'l-Maa'ifah (Tawheed of Acknowledgement and Knowledge): The first is to acknowledge the Being (and existence) of Allaah, the Most High, along with all His Attributes, Acts and Names. In this, He is unique. There is none like Him in all these characteristics - as Allaah Himself and His Messengers informed us. And ii) Tawheed fi'l-Talib wa'l-Qasd (Tawheed of Solicitation and Intent): The second, the Tawheed of Solicitation and Intent, has been well defined by the following short chapter from the Qur'aan: [Say: O you disbelievers… (Al-Kaafiroon, 1)] And: [Say: O People of the Book, come to an equitable term between yourselves and us, that we shall worship none but Allaah… (Aal-'Imraan, 64)] [Look to Sharh' Al-'Aqeedah At-Tahawiyyah eng. Trans. Pg. 8-9, published by Al-Attique]

    And it is worth mentioning that Ibn Abee Al-'Izz mentioned this classification of two categories, only a few pages after explaining Tawheed with the three common categories; "Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah" and "Tawheed Ar-Rooboobiyyah" and "Tawheed Asmaa' wa Sifaat". But it was not strange for him to classify Tawheed in one manner and explain it using these categories and then explain it an alternate way with the use of only two categories as they both aid the understanding of Tawheed and that which it covers. And this occurs within the same precise chapter! It is also interesting to point out that Ibn Abee Al-'Izz spends much of this chapter in refuting the people of Bid'ah who have denied certain aspects of Tawheed. And this was due to their understanding of what Tawheed includes and implies, yet the classification and categorization of Tawheed was not important as he, himself used two alternate methods of classification for the purpose of explaining and emphasizing its implications and components.

    Similarly, after dividing Tawheed into the three common categories, Dr. Na'eem Yaseen mentioned in a footnote to his chapter on Tawheed:

    "However, some scholars have reduced these three types of Tawheed to two; One in knowledge and belief, which include Tawheed of Allaah in His Lordship and Names and Attributes, and one type in Al-Iraadah and Al-Qasd (Will and Intention) which is Tawheed of Allaah in His Worship. See: Sharh Al-Aqeedah At-Tahawiyyah Pg. 88 and Fath Al-Majeed, Pg. 15 and Sharh Qaseedat Ibn Al-Qayyim, Vol. 2/259 and Tatheer Al-I'tiqaad, Pg. 3" [Kitaab Al-Eemaan eng. Trans. Pg. 14-15 ff., published by Al-Firdous Ltd, London]

    So although the most common and perhaps the best division of the different aspects of Tawheed are these three (i.e. Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah, Tawheed Ar-Rooboobiyyah and Tawheed Asmaa' wa Sifaat ) this does not mean that these terms and classifications are from the legislated terminology of what Allaah, the Most High, revealed to His Messenger or what was taught to the companions or passed to the succeeding generations at all. Rather, these terms do not even exist in the Book of Allaah or in the Sunnah or the Prophet or the statements of the companions in the first place. So how can someone claim that using a fourth or fifth classification of Tawheed for the purposes of explaining and categorizing the science of Tawheed is an innovation (Bid'ah)?! Especially when we see that many of the early scholars have only used two categories of Tawheed to explain and identify their importance.

    Similar to this, in Mustaalih Al-Hadeeth (the classification and terminology of Hadeeth sciences) the earliest scholars did not use the word "Shaath" (incorrect), when referring to narrations or parts of narrations, which were in contradiction to more reliable reports. Rather, the earliest Hadeeth scholars classified these narrations as "Munkar" (objectionable) and the word Shaath became used later to identify these reports. So is this an innovation (Bid'ah)?

    So if someone is to say that the term "Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah" is an innovation (Bid'ah) because it was not used by the first three generations (Salaf us-Saalih) then it is upon them to show any of the first three generations using these three categories (i.e. Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah, Tawheed Ar-Rooboobiyyah and Tawheed Asmaa' wa Sifaat ) in their terminology as they are used today. This is because the burden of proof is upon the one who has alleged the infraction and not the other way around.

    So the author of the message quotes the statement of Shaykh Saalih Al-Fawzaan saying:

    "In order to say this, they relay [sic] on the idea that dividing Tawheed is just a traditional way of explaining it, not something restricted. Based on this assumption, there is nothing preventing us from adding another category. So it should be said to such a person, "This division is not a traditional explanation, rather it goes back to the Book and the Sunnah, and the Salaf took these three categories directly from the Book and the Sunnah."

    Firstly, and after declaring our love and respect for the noble Shaykh Saalih Al-Fawzaan, may Allaah preserve him, we say that this response is ambiguous. This is because a person could quite rightly say in response, "The Tawheed of Allaah's Haakimiyyah also goes back to the Book and the Sunnah," and as we have stated earlier, the one who says that any of the first three generations (Salaf us-Saalih) used the terminology of the three more common divisions of Tawheed must prove this by bringing their statements wherein they actually use the terms Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah, Tawheed Ar-Rooboobiyyah and Tawheed Asmaa' wa Sifaat. And until now, we have not been presented with a single narration of this nature.

    Next, the author brings some quotations from some of the scholars who held that separating the division of Tawheed into four categories; one being Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah, is a reprehensible innovation (Bid'ah) and therefore is objectionable. However, as we've discussed earlier, these terms were not narrated in the Book of Allaah or in the Sunnah of His Messenger or in the terminology of the companions anyway so the arguments of those who call this term an innovation (Bid'ah) are in need of evidence, which was not presented by the author.

    However, in the course of quoting these scholars, the author touches upon a relevant fact. Again, quoting from Shaykh Saalih Al-Fawzaan, we read:

    "As for Haakimiyyah, then it is true. It is obligatory for us to rule by the Sharee'ah of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. However this is included in Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah because it is obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic."

    And this is true and correct because taking ones judgments to Allaah's Sharee'ah is a form of singling out Allaah for worship just as making one's sacrifice and prayer for Allaah, alone, are both singling out Allaah for worship. And all of these aspects are covered in the category of Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah already.

    So the second question is: "If Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah is already covered within Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah, then what is the point of making it into a fourth distinct category of Tawheed?"

    To answer this, we must reflect upon some historical realities. During the recent eras of colonialism and imperialism and the subsequent bombardment of secularist concepts, several Muslims had been influenced by these ideas and many began to ascribe to the ideology of removing the religion from politics and legislation. This led to wholesale adoption of non-Islaamic laws and accepting and ruling with a multitude of man-made constitutions and fabricated legislations. So it was not uncommon for a person to take his judgments to the laws of France or Britain and being comfortable in doing that, while believing that he was still upon Tawheed. And this was because the essential components of Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah were not all clear to such people. These people understood that prayer and fasting and slaughtering were all to be done for Allaah, alone; however, they did not feel the least bit shy from taking their judgments to, and basing their rulings upon the laws of man, instead of the Sharee'ah of Allaah.

    For example, Shaykh Ahmad Shaakir, may Allaah be merciful to him said, "So look, O Muslims, in all of the Islaamic countries or the ones which claim to be Islaamic, in all the parts of the Earth, to what your enemies from the missionaries and colonists have done to you! They have put upon the Muslims, laws of misguidance, which destroy the etiquettes and the Deen. European law, which are idols, which were never based upon any Sharee'ah or Deen, rather they were based upon rules that were made by the Kaafir who refused to believe in the Messenger of their era, 'Eesa, 'alayhee salaam. And he remained upon his paganism with what he had from Fisq and Fujoor (i.e. oppression). This person was Justinyaan, the father of the laws and the one who established the basis - so they claim - and an important man from Egypt who - due to oppression - attributes himself to Islaam, and who did not feel too ashamed to translate the laws of that transgressing pagan and he called it 'The Code of Justinyaan,' insulting "The code of Maalik," one of the encyclopedias of Islaamic Jurisprudence, which was based upon the Book and the Sunnah, and which is attributed to the Imaam of Dar Al-Hijjrah (i.e. Madinah)! So look at the level of absurdity and shamefulness and recklessness of that man!

    "These laws, which the enemies of Islaam imposed upon the Muslims due to enmity; in reality it is another religion and they made it a Deen for the Muslims in replacement of their pure Deen because they made it obligatory upon them to follow it and obey it. And they put into the hearts, love and adoration for it to the point where you see upon the tongues and the pens, words like, 'The holiness of the judgments,' or 'The holiness of the courts,' or 'The holiness of the laws,' and words like these, which they refuse to describe the Islaamic Sharee'ah or the opinions of the Jurists of Islaam with! Instead, they describe it (i.e. the Sharee'ah) with words such as, 'Reactionism,' or 'Stagnant,' or 'Priesthood,' or 'the Sharee'ah of the Jungle,' or other than that from the evils that you see in the newspapers or the magazines or modern books, which are written by the followers of those pagans.

    "Then they started to label these (fabricated) laws and the studies of those (fabricated) laws with the word, 'Al-Fiqh,' and 'Al-Faqee',' and 'At-Tashree',' and 'Al-Mushaara',' and other words that the 'Ulaama of Islaam used to describe the Sharee'ah and its 'Ulaama. Then they go (even) further and to the degree where they compare the Deen of Islaam and its Sharee'ah with their modern Deen - until he said - and this modern Deen became the basis which the Muslims take their Hukm to and they judge with it, in most of the Islaamic countries whether it is in something that complies with the laws of the Sharee'ah or contradicts it. And all of this is falsehood and rebellion because whatever complied with it coincidentally and not out of due to following it and not out of obedience to the command of Allaah or the command to His Messenger. So whatever complies and whatever contradicts; both are stuck in the mud of misguidance and it leads the one who follows it to the Fire and it is not allowed for a Muslim to be submissive to it or be pleased with it. And we will add to this meaning under the words of Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer under the Tafseer of the fiftieth verse of Surat Al-Maa'idah, inshaa'Allaah." ['Umdaat At-Tafseer Mukhtaasir Tafseer Ibn Katheer of Ahmad Shaakir ", Vol. 3/214-215]

    So due to these realities and due to the fact that the Muslims became virtually swallowed within these laws of Kufr and their courts and legislations; taking their judgments to these fabricated man-made laws whilst not being aware of the Shirk of this action, some of the people of knowledge began to speak with the term "Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah" in order to stress its importance and emphasize the tie between legislation and Tawheed itself, even though they understood that Haakimiyyah was already within the category of Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah. And this was similar, historically, to the development of the term Tawheed Al-Asmaa' wa Sifaat, due to the people's denial of the Attributes of Allaah, even though this aspect of Tawheed is included within Tawheed Al-'Ilm wa'l-'Atiqaad, as we pointed out earlier in our discussion of the division of Tawheed by Ibn Al-Qayyim.

    So even though it is clear that Al-Haakimiyyah is included within Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah (as well as Rooboobiyyah and Asmaa' wa Sifaat to a lesser degree), this is a mere classification for emphasis, due to its necessity and due to the negligence of the common people, for the purpose of stressing its importance. And we do not see it as an innovation (Bid'ah), but rather as a redundancy, which assisted the 'Ulamaa in teaching and reforming the people. Shaykh 'Abdullah bin Muhammad Al-Ghunaymaan was asked:
    "What is your opinion concerning the rejection of Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah, and is singling it out as a separate category leaving the Meth'haab of the Salaf, and under which type of Tawheed would this category enter under?"

    To which he replied:

    "It is not permissible to deny Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah, for it is from the types of Tawheed. But it falls under Tawheed al-'Ibaadah (i.e. an alternate phrasing of 'Uloohiyyah) with regards to the ruler himself as a person. With regards to it meaning Tawheed, then it falls under Ar-Ruboobiyyah, because the Ruler is Allaah. So it should be that the Lord is the Muttasarrif (Controller of affairs), He is the One who has the judgment (Hukm), so it falls under Tawheed Ar-Ruboobiyyah with regards to ruling, ordering, prohibiting, and carrying out, whereas regards to application and action then the slave is responsible for following the Hukm of Allaah, so then it is from Tawheed Al-'Ibaadah in this sense. And making it into a fourth category doesn't make sense because it falls into the three categories. And the division without a reason is a cause of extra words, which are not needed, and it is a simple matter anyway. If he makes it a separate category then he is being redundant, and there is no harm it." [From the Questions and answers with Shaykh 'Abdullah Al-Ghunaymaan - Eng. Trans. from the brothers on the Internet]

    Shaykh 'Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn 'Abdul-Khaaliq said, in his refutation of those who deny Tawheed Al-Asmaa' wa Sifaat:

    "…And these names and terminologies; there is no doubt that they are names and terminologies, which neither Allaah nor His Messenger spoke with their likes. However, the 'Ulamaa of the Salaf, may Allaah be pleased with them, used them. And this was not from the invented Bid'ah, rather it was from the categorization of knowledge, which simplifies the understanding. As it is said, 'the science of Tafseer' and 'the principles of Tafseer' and 'the science of Hadeeth' and the terminology of 'classification of Hadeeth' and 'Jurisprudence' and 'the principles of Jurisprudence' and 'the science of Tawheed' and none of these various categories are found in the Qur'aan nor the Sunnah.

    And the Messenger did not teach the Ummah their religion through categories like this in the sense that he would give them a lesson in Tafseer and another in Hadeeth and a third in Seerah, rather, the legislated knowledge was one component and then these categories and branches and terminologies were developed to simplify learning these sciences. And like that, is the issue of our saying 'the Tawheed of Asmaa' wa Sifaat' and 'the Tawheed of 'Uloohiyyah' and 'the Tawheed of Rooboobiyyah'. They are merely classifications within one science and it is the matters of Eemaan in Allaah and because the Eemaan in Allaah contains within it, several classifications.

    And due to that, the 'Ulamaa were in need of these terminologies. So they said 'Tawheed Al-Asmaa wa Sifaat' and 'Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah' and 'Tawheed Al-Rooboobiyyah'. And it has also come, that some have said 'Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah' and this was when - from the Muslims, came those who differentiated between the matters of the Deen and the matters of this life - assuming that the Muslims were free to choose between taking the rulings to the legislation of Allaah or taking it to the legislation of other than His.

    So from the Muhadditheen (Hadeeth scholars), of the 'Ulamaa, have come and said that Eemaan in Allah necessitates that we believe that there is no judgment except for Him. As He, the Most High, said: "And verily, for Him was the creation and the command." And He said: "And Allaah judges and there is none to reject His judgment." So it was derived from these verses and others like them and it was called 'a new category' from the categories and it is Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah. And there is no doubt that the meaning, which was intended by those who used this phrase, was correct even if this terminology itself and this phase was invented. And as we have said earlier, this is not from the invented Bid'ah, rather it is from the Sharee'ah-based benefits, in order to bring closer the meanings to the mind and to classify the sciences and to clarify the meaning."


    So from what we have discussed above, in the course of this clarification, we understand the following:

    1. The terminology, which was developed from the scholars in order to explain and classify the different sciences of the Sharee'ah knowledge, is not from the legislated terminology that Allaah and His Messenger came with. And due to this, it cannot be restricted to particular methods of explanation.
    2. The above rule extends to the categorization and classification of Tawheed, as we have seen that some of the scholars and the Salaf, such as Ibn Al-Qayyim and Ibn 'Abee Al-'Izz and other than them, used two categories of Tawheed or explained Tawheed interchangeably between three categories and two for the benefits of explaining and emphasizing its aspects and their importance.
    3. Those who claim that using the term Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah is an innovation (Bid'ah); it is upon them to bring the evidence that these terms: Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah, Tawheed Ar-Rooboobiyyah and Tawheed Asmaa' wa Sifaat were used by the first three generations of Muslims (i.e. Salaf As-Saalih), otherwise the claim has no basis.
    4. Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah is not a separate independent category of Tawheed with no link to any other classification, rather it falls beneath the category of Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah as parts of it fall beneath Ar-Rooboobiyyah and Al-Asmaa' wa Sifaat.
    5. Due to historical events, some of the people of knowledge began using the term Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah in order to give emphasis to this aspect of Tawheed and demonstrate its importance and its essential link to the overall Tawheed of Allaah.

    And Allaah, the Most High, knows best. And may the Peace and Blessings of Allaah be upon our Messenger Muhammad, and his family and his companions and those who follow them in truth, until the last day.

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